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How does CBD fight cancer?

In multiple studies, a BFFnd reports, that Cannabidiol CBD fight cancer and has been found to have independent anti-cancer effects and can also relieve the symptoms of pain, insomnia, and depression in cancer patients.

CBD scientific name cannabidiol, mainly extracted from female industrial hemp plants, is non-addictive. Cannabidiol (CBD) has anti-tumor preclinical evidence for various cancers. It is a cannabinoid without any psychoactive activity. It works by regulating the endocannabinoid system.

The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is a signaling system in the human body, which is mainly composed of cannabinoid receptors CB2 and CB2. CB1 mainly exists in the central nervous system, and the expression in the peripheral nervous system is low or moderate. CB2 receptors are mainly present in the immune system, and the content in the central nervous system is low.

Studies have found that the endocannabinoid system has changed in many diseases, such as multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury, stroke, myocardial infarction, high blood pressure, glaucoma and osteoporosis, neuropathic pain, and cancer, atherosclerosis hardening, etc.

Cannabinoids and cancer

In the past few decades, more and more evidence has shown that some CBD can fight cancer, it can inhibit the proliferation and angiogenesis of tumor cells, and induce the death of various tumor cells. 

Interfere with tumor angiogenesis, cancer cell migration, adhesion, invasion, and metastasis. Cannabidiol (CBD) is similar in structure to THC but does not have psychoactive side effects. Cannabidiol is a very effective CB1 receptor antagonist in mouse vas deferens and brain tissue in vitro and is also an inverse agonist of human CB2 receptors.

Cannabidiol (CBD) and breast cancer.

In 2006, a study by Ligresti et al. showed for the first time that it can selectively inhibit the proliferation and spread of human breast cancer cells. 

In vitro, it can strongly inhibit the growth of different breast cancer cell lines. Cannabidiol can induce a whole set of mechanisms, including direct activation of TRPV1 receptors and indirect activation of CB2 receptors. It is also related to oxidative stress.

Follow-up studies by McAllister et al. showed that Cannabidiol can not only affect the proliferation of breast cancer cells but also interfere with tumor invasion and metastasis. These are the other two fatal and final breast cancer cell development processes.

It may act by regulating key genes related to cell proliferation and invasion. Id-1 protein is a basic “helix-loop” helix transcription factor inhibitor. Overexpression of this transcription factor in breast cancer cells can stimulate proliferation, migration, and spread. A certain concentration of CBD can inhibit the expression of Id-1 protein.

CBD inhibits the signal pathway of breast cancer proliferation and invasion

On the whole, this study emphasizes the complex mutual regulation between autophagy and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in CBD-induced breast cancer cell death. 

The promising data in the study supports the following view: 

CBD, a non-toxic compound, is likely to be used as a new method to treat breast cancer, or as a starting point for a second-generation drug that can be tested in the clinic.

Cannabidiol (CBD) used in lung cancer

The biological characteristics of lung cancer are extremely aggressive, and currently, available treatment options are very poorly effective.

Ramer et al. recently evaluated the effect of CBD on the lung cancer cell line, which expresses CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 receptors, with particular emphasis on tumor invasiveness. They found that CBD weakened the invasiveness of A549, and this weakening effect would be hindered by three receptor antagonists.

The researchers also used thymic aplastic nude mice to conduct in vivo studies. In this model, intravenous injection of 5 mg/kg of CBD inhibited the spread of lung cancer cells, further supporting the potential medical value of CBD. In the case of lung cancer patients, CBD can reduce the activity of lung cancer cell lines (A549, H460) and primary cells, which is related to apoptosis.

CBD and leukemia.

Gallily et al. treated with CBD for 24 hours and induced apoptosis of the human acute myeloid leukemia cell line HL-60. This process is dose-dependent and is related to the activation of protease-3. CBD does not affect the monocytes of the normal human body.

So far, the most important research work in related fields is done by McKallip et al. They treated the murine leukemia cell line EL-4 and the human leukemia cell lines Jurat and Molt-4 with CBD and proved that it can reduce the number of active leukemia cells in vivo and in vitro, and induce apoptosis, which depends on the CB2 receptor. 

In particular, treatment with CBD in mice with EL-4 can cause a significant decrease in tumor burden and cause a high level of apoptosis of tumor cells. On the whole, CBD may be a highly selective treatment for leukemia. It is worth noting that previous studies have shown that patients with leukemia and lymphoma express higher levels of CB2 receptors than other tumors.

Cannabidiol (CBD) and colon cancer

Izzo et al. recently studied the effects of marijuana which include CBD on colon cancer in animal models. Mice were injected with azomethane (AOM), which caused the cells to develop pre-neoplastic lesions, polyps, and tumors. 

Studies have shown that CBD has effective chemopreventive properties, which can reduce ACF, polyps, and tumors. CBD can protect DNA from oxidative damage, increase endocannabinoid levels, and reduce cell proliferation. Based on these promising data and the safety of CBD, it is worth considering CBD as a drug candidate when clinically treating colon cancer.

Cannabidiol (CBD) and glioma

Glioma has the characteristics of a high proliferation rate, strong invasiveness, and insensitivity to radiation and chemotherapy, and is considered to be one of the fastest-growing and most destructive solid tumors.

In 2004, Massi et al. reported that CBD can inhibit the proliferation of U87-MG and U373 human glioma cells in vitro and is associated with apoptosis. The researchers then evaluated the effects of CBD on tumors in vivo. During the 23-day observation period, CBD can significantly reduce (60% median) the growth of mouse glioma cells.

Signal pathway of CBD’s effect on glioma cells

Recent studies have shown that CBD can activate TRPV2 receptors, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of human glioma cells, and can overcome the carmustine resistance of glioma cells. 

This mechanism seems to be related to the increased influx of calcium ions and the resulting drug absorption, and the synergistic effect of cytotoxic agents inducing the apoptosis of glioma cells.

Cannabidiol (CBD) and endocrine tumors

Among endocrine malignancies, the most common one is thyroid cancer. This tumor is characterized by excessive activation of Ras protein, which may depend on mutations that activate the Ras gene, or excessive activation of tyrosine kinase receptors.

Based on these observations, new methods for the treatment of thyroid cancer should take Ras protein as an important molecular target. Ligresti et al. used CBD for the first time to treat KiMol murine thyroid cancer cells. CBD exhibits anti-cell proliferation effects, accompanied by cell cycle arrest and apoptosis-promoting effects.

Further research by Lee et al. showed that CBD has a significant pro-apoptotic effect in mouse thymocytes and EL-4 thymoma cells, which is time- and concentration-dependent. In short, CBD can induce oxidative stress in thymocytes, EL-4 cells, and spleen cells. These facts indicate that, unlike monocytes, T cells (including primary T cells and immortalized T cells) are sensitive to CBD and have similar responses.

Cannabidiol (CBD) and glioblastoma multiforme

Cardiol is a leader in the field of CBD-based drug treatment research and development and is currently working to find effective treatments for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). 

GBM is the most common malignant brain tumor, and its average survival rate is less than one year. The recent passing of Senator John McCain and rapper Gordon Downey was caused by this disease. Cardiol is developing a drug candidate CRxIMT, which combines cannabidiol immunotherapy-based methods to treat GBM.

There are still many cases on the Internet about the use of CBD to treat cancer to obtain good results, which are not listed here. There is sufficient evidence to show that CBD can promote apoptosis and anti-proliferation effects on many different tumors. 

It also has anti-migration, anti-invasion, and anti-metastasis effects, and may also have anti-angiogenesis effects. The numerous effects of cannabidiol in anti-tumour indicate that it is likely to be a highly effective inhibitor of cancer growth and spread.

Another important conclusion is that cannabidiol is highly safe and has no negative effects on healthy tissues. This is in sharp contrast with the current standard of medical care.

In 2018, under the unremitting promotion of American cancer and epilepsy patients and their family groups, it was legalized and is now the most popular natural anti-cancer herbal medicine in the United States.

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