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Wednesday, June 12, 2024

How to grow industrial hemp?

Introduction

Industrial hemp refers to hemp with a THC content of less than 0.3%, which is an annual herb of the cannabis family. In several countries, the legally grown industrial hemp is all low-toxic varieties.

The application of cannabis is divided into three applications: the first is industrial use; the second is medical use, and the third is “recreational” cannabis. Industrial hemp is used to form cloth and ropes. Asia has a history of using hemp fiber to make cloth for thousands of years. 

In traditional Chinese medicine, Li Shizhen (Chinese Herbalist) of “Compendium of Materia Medica” made hemp the third eye, which is the main treatment for neurological diseases. One of the medications. With the continuous increase of the aging population, the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease has become more frequent, and cannabis extract has an amazing effect on the treatment of related mental illnesses. 

This is also fully consistent with the concept of chronic disease management in the Paris Clinic. The entire cannabis industry is a relatively closed market, and European and American markets cannot enter China. In other words, this market with a population of more than 1.3 billion is only in the hands of a few companies.

CBD is cannabidiol, derived from industrial hemp whose THC is less than three thousandths. Cannabidiol, a non-toxic component in marijuana, is a good cure for diseases. Because of its importance and scarcity, the price in the international market is more expensive than gold. Biologically extract the addictive non-toxic component cannabidiol (cannabidiol referred to as CBD) from low-toxic industrial hemp. 

CBD can be used in medicine to substantially improve many diseases: anorexia, AIDS, epilepsy, Parkinson’s, brain tumors, and so on. Developed countries in Europe and the United States already have relevant terminal products (drugs, health products, and cosmetics) on the market. CBD oil is a natural ingredient extracted from hemp. It can now be used legally in 50 states in the United States and can be exported to forty countries including China. CBD oil can not only be widely used in nutritional products, skincare products, ordinary beverages, and functional beverages but such products can also be sold through traditional and direct sales methods.

Industrial hemp in Asia

On January 1, 2010, Yunnan Province implemented the “Provisions on the Licensing of Industrial Hemp Planting and Processing in Yunnan Province”, becoming the only province in the country that allows and supervises the cultivation of industrial hemp in the form of regulations.

Yunnan is one of the origins of cannabis in the world. Yunnan is also the most suitable area for the cultivation of industrial hemp, possessing the only variety of resources and raw material resources that can be industrialized in China.

In recent years, large-scale planting has been carried out in more than ten counties and cities, including Kunming, Yuxi, Honghe, Wenshan, Chuxiong, Lijiang, Baoshan, Qujing, Xishuangbanna, etc. in Yunnan Province. The growth cycle of industrial hemp in my country is about 110-130 days, and Yunnan’s special climatic conditions are suitable for cultivation.

  • According to the “China Agricultural Statistical Yearbook” and the statistics of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organizations, China is now the country with the largest area of ​​industrial hemp, accounting for about half of the world.
  • Data provided by the Narcotics Control Bureau of the Yunnan Provincial Public Security Bureau shows that since 2010, Yunnan has approved the cultivation of more than 220,000 mu of industrial hemp, covering 38 counties (cities, districts) in 13 states (cities).

What kind of cannabis are in China? What is the yield?

  • At present, China’s fiber hemp is mainly distributed in Yunnan, Anhui, Heilongjiang, Shandong, Henan, Shanxi, Gansu, and other provinces. From 2002 to 2011, China’s annual production of hemp fiber was about 33,000 tons, accounting for 47.8% of the world’s total
  • China’s hemp seed production is mainly in Gansu and Inner Mongolia in the northwest, Shanxi in North China, and Guangxi in South China. From 2002 to 2011, the average annual production of hemp seeds in China was about 40,000 tons, accounting for 40.5% of the world.
  • According to industry experts’ surveys, China’s industrial hemp planting area and output have increased in recent years. In 2014, the production area reached more than 25,000 hectares. Among them, Yunnan Province was 7 million hectares, Heilongjiang Province was 7,000 hectares, and Anhui Province was 5,000 hectares. Hectares, 4 million hectares in other areas.

Industrial hemp cultivation tips 

  • Highly resistant to insects;
  • Good cold resistance;
  • The deep root system helps protect the soil;
  • Dense growth characteristics, basically free from weed growth;
  • Vitality is higher than other fiber crops.

Industrial hemp is particularly sensitive to soil fertility. No matter what kind of soil or previous crop hemp is used for cultivation, attention should be paid to soil tillage measures and a large number of organic fertilizers to achieve high and stable yield effects.

  • Mineral nutrients that need to be obtained from the soil: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur, etc.;
  • Need to obtain non-mineral elements from air and water: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.;
  • Industrial hemp requires a soil pH of at least 6;
  • The vitality cycle of most seeds is 1-2 years, and hemp seeds are no exception, so be sure to plant in the best vitality cycle of the seeds.

 Growth conditions of industrial hemp 

1. Temperature

Industrial hemp does not require high temperatures. It can germinate when the soil temperature is above 1℃, but the seedlings should emerge neatly. Generally, it is suitable to sow when the soil temperature is 8-10℃. The seed can withstand low temperatures of 3 to 5°C and lower temperatures within 10 to 15 days after germination; at a low temperature of -5°C, its growth will be delayed. However, if sufficient water and nutrients can be supplied, the low temperature in the seedling stage has little effect on subsequent development and yield. Industrial hemp for seed is cold, and the large temperature difference between day and night is beneficial to increase the yield and quality of hemp seeds.

2. Light

Hemp is a light crop. In seed cultivation, strong light is conducive to axillary bud germination and inflorescence development of hemp plants, thereby increasing seed yield. In fiber cultivation, weak light can inhibit the germination of axillary buds, reduce branches and promote top growth, which is conducive to improving fiber yield and quality.

Hemp is a short-day crop. Shortening the sunshine can promote flowering, but the plant is short, the fiber yield is low, and the grain matures early; prolonging the sunshine can delay flowering. Due to the elongated vegetative growth period, the plant grows taller and the fiber present in them is high.

Light conditions have a significant impact on the growth and development of hemp, so in production, the method of southern hemp growing in the north is often used to extend the vegetative growth period to increase fiber yield; the northern hemp growing in the south can shorten the growth period and is suitable for the short frost-free period. Use hemp for regional seeds or multiple seeding.

3. Moisture

Fiber industrial hemp requires a large amount of water, the whole growth period requires 500-700mm of precipitation, the rapid growth period (the plant height increases by 4-6 cm/day) the soil moisture should be high, and the soil moisture is 70% of the soil field water holding capacity. Approximately 80%, growth, and development are the best, which is beneficial to increase the fiber yield. 

However, industrial hemp is also resistant to drought and barrenness. When the seeds are used, drought has a greater impact on the vegetative growth of industrial hemp, and the plant is short and has a slight impact on the grain yield. Industrial hemp is very strong, and it will not stop production even in a very barren land, but the yield is low, so industrial hemp for seed can be grown in severely barren areas.

4. Nutrients

Fiber industrial hemp has high requirements for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Nitrogen is the highest amount, potassium is the second, and phosphorus is the least required. The combined application of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium has a significant yield increase effect. Potassium fertilizer has the effect of improving fiber yield and quality. 

Seed industrial hemp has low nutrient requirements. Farmyard manure is better, and the chemical fertilizer is appropriate nitrogen fertilizer, plus phosphorus and potassium fertilizers. Higher nitrogen fertilizer will cause plants to grow longer and waste nutrients; increased application of phosphate fertilizer can increase grain yield; potassium fertilizer can increase grain oil content.

The specific steps of industrial hemp cultivation 

January-April

Site selection: Sandy loam with deep soil layer, strong water and fertility retention, soft and fertile soil, and good drainage is preferable, and the pH value is 6-6.5 slightly acidic.

Crop rotation: Crop rotation with rice, vegetables, jute, and other crops can reduce pests and improve stocking capacity.

Land preparation: According to the specific farming land conditions, hemp soil is suitable for cropping, and the width can be 1.0-2.3 meters.

Fertilization: 3/4 of the nutrient of hemp must be absorbed in the early stage of growth, but the root growth of the seedling stage is slow and the absorption capacity is weak. Enough base fertilizer should be applied, generally 1500-2500 kg of manure, soil manure or green manure, 40-50 kg of plant ash, etc.

Seeding: Choose pure and full, complete, free from diseases and insect pests, uniform size, fresh color, high germination rate, 1000-grain weights of small seeds and large seeds should be above 20 grams and 25 grams, respectively, germination rate above 95%, impurity rate not More than 5%. 

Rinse the seeds with clean water before sowing, soak them in water for 2-3 days, take them out and expose them for 1 day, and then plant them.

April-July

April to July is the period of cannabis cultivation, and the specific steps include thinning, fixed seedlings, supplementary cultivation, fertilization, soil cultivation, irrigation, and drainage.

During this period, attention should be paid to preventing wind disasters, pest control, and other work.

Note: During the growth period of hemp, because of its tall stems, it is vulnerable to wind damage. For this reason, measures such as fine soil preparation, cultivating strong seedlings, late irrigation of headwater, light irrigation, and frequent irrigation; appropriate amounts of nitrogen, and increased phosphorus and potassium fertilizers should be adopted.

July-September

Harvest: Hemp for fiber is harvested from July to August; hemp for seed is harvested in September.

Harvest standard: the middle and lower leaves of the hemp plant fall off, the stems and leaves are yellow-white, and the upper stems and leaves are yellow-green or when the male plant flowers are in full bloom and the female plant flowers have small fruits.

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